Obama frente a Romney en materia de empleo

BERKELEY – Los Estados Unidos acaban de concluir su tercer año de recuperación económica, pero la tasa de desempleo sigue siendo superior al ocho por ciento y hay señales preocupantes de desaceleración. Así, pues, no es de extrañar que el empleo haya pasado a ser un asunto fundamental en la campaña presidencial o que los candidatos tengan ideas muy diferentes sobre cómo aumentarlo.

El pasado otoño, el Presidente Barack Obama propuso la Ley de Empleo Americano, un plan de medidas fiscales que ascendía a 450.000 millones de dólares e iba encaminado a la creación de puestos de trabajo. La suma correspondiente a dicha ley representaba el tres por ciento, aproximadamente, del PIB y había de entrar en vigor en 2012 y aportar un oportuno impulso al empleo y una garantía para la recuperación de los EE.UU. contra los vientos mundiales contrarios. La mayoría de sus medidas habían contado con el apoyo bipartito en el pasado; las reducciones tributarias representaban el 56 por ciento del costo total y se pagaban con cargo al plan de Obama de reducción del déficit a largo plazo.

Varios economistas independientes concluyeron que el plan de Obama daría un impulso importante al mercado laboral en el período 2012-2013. De hecho, dos de los más respetados analistas de la nación predijeron que, gracias a esa ley, se crearían entre 1,3 millones y 1,9 millones de puestos de trabajo en 2012 y más de dos millones al final de 2013. La Oficina Presupuestaria del Congreso, no partidaria, consideró también que la mayoría de las políticas que entrañaba la ley tenía una gran eficacia presupuestaria, calculada mediante el número de puestos de trabajo creados en el período 2012-2013 por dólar de costo presupuestario.

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