Obama contre Romney sur la question de l’emploi

BERKELEY - Les Etats-Unis arrivent à la fin de leur troisième année de relance économique, mais le taux de chômage reste supérieur à 8% et il existe des signes inquiétants de ralentissement. Il n'est donc pas surprenant que l’emploi soit devenu une préoccupation majeure de la campagne présidentielle - ni que les candidats aient des idées très différentes sur la façon de stimuler l'emploi.

A l'automne dernier, le président Barack Obama a proposé l'American Jobs Act, un programme de 450 milliards de dollars de mesures fiscales visant à la création d'emplois. L'AJA s'est élevé à environ 3% du PIB et a été conçu pour prendre effet en 2012, fournissant au moment opportun un encouragement à l'emploi et une assurance pour la relance américaine contre la tourmente financière mondiale. La plupart de ses mesures avaient bénéficié d'un soutien bipartite dans le passé. Les réductions d’impôts représentaient environ 56% du coût total et le programme a été financé par le plan à long terme de réduction du déficit par l'administration Obama.

Plusieurs économistes indépendants ont conclu que le plan d'Obama donnerait une importante impulsion au marché du travail en 2012-2013. En effet, deux des prévisionnistes les plus respectés du pays ont prédit que l'AJA apporterait entre 1,3 et 1,9 million d'emplois en 2012 et plus de deux millions d'emplois d'ici la fin de l'année 2013. Le Bureau du Budget du Congrès, non partisan, (Congressional Budget Office, CBO) a également constaté que la plupart des politiques de l'AJA avaient une forte efficacité budgétaire, mesurée en nombre d'emplois créés en 2012-2013 par dollar de coût budgétaire.

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