Chris Van Es

La corde raide d’Obama

CAMBRIDGE – Selon un responsable du Département d’état américain, le concept de « smart power » [puissance intelligente] - l’intelligente intégration et le relationnel en matière de diplomatie, de défense, de développement et d’autres instruments de puissance dite « dure » et de puissance dite « douce » - est au cour de la vision de la politique étrangère de l’administration Obama. Actuellement, cependant, cette stratégie de puissance intelligente se trouve confrontée aux difficiles défis nés des événements au Moyen-Orient.

Si Obama devait ne pas soutenir les gouvernements en Égypte, au Bahreïn, en Arabie Saoudite ou au Yémen, il pourrait pénaliser plusieurs objectifs importants de politique étrangère comme la paix au Moyen-Orient, une base navale dans le golfe Persique, la stabilité des marchés pétroliers ou la coopération contre les terroristes d’al-Qaida. Par contre, s’il soutient simplement de tels gouvernements, il éveillera l’hostilité de ces sociétés civiles qui s’appuient désormais sur les nouveaux moyens d’information, entravant ainsi la stabilité à long terme. 

Trouver l’équilibre entre les relations de puissance dure avec les gouvernements et un soutien de puissance douce à la diplomatie est comme marcher sur une corde raide. L’administration Obama a vacillé dans cet exercice d’équilibriste mais n’est jusqu’à présent pas tombé.

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