Jennifer Kohnke

El giro de Obama hacia el Pacífico

CAMBRIDGE – El regreso de Asia al centro de la escena internacional es el gran desplazamiento de poder del siglo veintiuno. En 1750, Asia contaba con aproximadamente tres quintos de la población mundial y representaba también tres quintos de la producción global. En 1900, tras la Revolución Industrial en Europa y los Estados Unidos, la participación de Asia en la producción mundial se había contraído hasta un quinto del total. En 2050, Asia estará otra vez bien encaminada a convertirse en lo que fue 300 años atrás.

En lugar de prestar atención en esa dirección, Estados Unidos malgastó la primera década del siglo empantanado en las guerras de Irak y Afganistán. Pero ahora (según señaló en un discurso reciente la Secretaría de Estado de los EE. UU., Hillary Clinton), la política exterior estadounidense “pivotará” hacia Asia oriental.

La decisión del presidente Barack Obama de crear un destacamento rotativo de 2.500 marines en una base del norte de Australia es una señal anticipada de ese giro. A esto se suma que en la reunión del Foro de Cooperación Económica Asia‑Pacífico, celebrada en noviembre en el estado natal de Obama, Hawái, se decidió llamar a una nueva ronda de conversaciones comerciales denominada Acuerdo de Asociación Transpacífica. Ambos acontecimientos refuerzan el mensaje de Obama a la región de Asia y el Pacífico, en el sentido de que Estados Unidos pretende mantener una presencia firme en el área.

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