Jennifer Kohnke

L'Amérique se tourne vers le Pacifique

CAMBRIDGE – Le retour en puissance de l'Asie constitue le grand basculement du 21° siècle. En 1750 elle représentait 60% de la population mondiale et le même pourcentage de la production mondiale. En 1900, après la Révolution industrielle en Europe et en Amérique, elle ne comptait plus que pour 20% de cette production. Mais en 2050, elle aura presque retrouvé le rang qu'elle occupait il y a 300 ans.

Plutôt que de se préoccuper en priorité de cette évolution, les USA ont perdu la première décennie de ce siècle à s'embourber dans les guerres d'Irak et d'Afghanistan. Désormais, ainsi que l'a déclaré récemment Hillary Clinton, la secrétaire d'Etat américaine, la politique étrangère américaine va avoir comme pivot l'Asie de l'Est.

La décision du président Obama de maintenir une force de 2500 Marines dans le nord de l'Australie est l'un des premiers signes de cette évolution. Et le sommet du Forum de coopération économique Asie-Pacifique (APEC) qui s'est tenu à Hawaii, la terre natale d'Obama, a été l'occasion de lancer un nouveau cycle de négociations commerciales, le Partenariat transpacifique. Ces deux éléments renforcent le message qu'Obama adresse à la région Asie-Pacifique : les USA n'ont pas l'intention de se désengager de la région.

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