Obama et le Moyen-Orient

JERUSALEM – Le grand projet de Bush visant à résoudre les problèmes du Moyen-Orient par sa politique de "chaos constructif" a échoué et a ébranlé la position des USA en tant que superpuissance mondiale. Aussi, le plan de Barack Obama représente-t-il un changement bienvenu par rapport à son prédécesseur. Malheureusement, ses promesses de tout résoudre pourraient se révéler tout aussi irréalistes.

Son programme de politique étrangère  a de quoi couper le souffle. Il comporte la sortie du bourbier irakien afin d'alléger la politique étrangère américaine de ce fardeau, la résolution du conflit israélo-palestinien (qui traverse une phase critique) en se confrontant au lobby des "faucons" israéliens, le recours au dialogue avec l'Iran pour le détourner de ses ambitions nucléaires et avec la Syrie pour la détourner de son agenda radical. Autrement dit, il s'agit de dissoudre "l'axe du mal" de la région (Iran-Syrie-Hezbollah-Hamas), de libérer le Liban de la mainmise syrienne et de favoriser la paix entre Israël et la Syrie. Et l'on peut ajouter à cela une réorientation de l'effort militaire américain vers la guerre en Afghanistan.

L'étendue de ce programme est à comparer à l'état inquiétant de la région, toute entière dans un dangereux processus de "somalisation" avec une chaîne de plus en plus étendue d'acteurs non étatiques - essentiellement des groupes islamistes radicaux – ce qui menace le concept d'Etat presque partout.

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