Pedro Molina

La dolencia de Oriente Medio de Obama

PARIS – Tan pronto como el presidente estadounidense Barack Obama les dio la bienvenida a las tropas norteamericanas que regresaban de Irak y elogió la estabilidad y la democracia de ese país, una ola sin precedentes de violencia -en Bagdad y otras partes- reveló la gravedad de la crisis política de Irak. ¿Esa crisis es una excepción desafortunada o, más bien, un síntoma del fracaso de la diplomacia de Obama en Oriente Medio, desde Egipto hasta Afganistán?

Tras asumir la presidencia, Obama planteó cuatro objetivos en Oriente Medio: estabilizar a Irak antes de marcharse de ese país; retirar las tropas de Afganistán desde una posición de fortaleza y sobre la base de una mínima convergencia política con Pakistán; lograr un avance importante en el proceso de paz de Oriente Medio presionando al primer ministro israelí, Benjamin Netanyahu, a frenar la construcción de asentamientos; y abrir el diálogo con Irán sobre el futuro de su programa nuclear. Sobre estas cuatro cuestiones importantes, los logros de Obama son claramente escasos.

Con respecto a Irak, desde la presidencia de George W. Bush, Estados Unidos ha luchado por ejercer una influencia moderadora sobre el poder chiíta, de manera que el país pueda crear un sistema político más inclusivo -específicamente, sancionando una nueva ley sobre la distribución de los ingresos por exportaciones de petróleo entre las comunidades chiítia, sunita y kurda-. Desafortunadamente, sucedió exactamente todo lo contrario.

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