Pedro Molina

Ближневосточная боль Обамы

ПАРИЖ. Не успел президент США Барак Обама встретить дома американские войска из Ирака и восхвалить стабильность и демократию в этой стране, как беспрецедентная волна насилия – от Багдада до других городов ‑ показала серьезность политического кризиса в Ираке. Этот кризис – это неудачное исключение или, скорее, признак провала дипломатии Обамы на Ближнем Востоке от Египта до Афганистана?

После вступления в должность президент Обама поставил четыре задачи на Ближнем Востоке: стабилизировать ситуацию в Ираке, прежде чем уйти из него; уйти из Афганистана с позиции силы и при минимальном политическом сближении с Пакистаном; достигнуть большого прорыва в мирном процессе на Ближнем Востоке, оказав давление на премьер-министра Израиля Биньямина Нетаньяху в отношении замораживания строительства поселений; а также начать диалог с Ираном о будущем его ядерной программы. По этим четырем основным вопросам Обама, несомненно, не достиг больших успехов.

Что касается Ирака, со времени президентства Джорджа Буша Соединенные Штаты стремились оказывать сдерживающее влияние на шиитскую власть таким образом, чтобы страна могла создать более инклюзивную политическую систему ‑ в частности, путем принятия нового закона о распределении доходов от экспорта нефти между шиитами, суннитами и курдскими общинами. К сожалению, произошло прямо противоположное.

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