Pedro Molina

Les maux moyen-orientaux d'Obama

PARIS – À peine après avoir accueilli les troupes américaines de retour d'Iraq, le président des États-Unis Barack Obama, ses éloges faits de la stabilité et de la démocratie iraquienne, que la gravité de la crise politique de l'Iraq a resurgi sous la forme d'une vague de violence sans précédent déferlant sur Bagdad et dans le reste du pays. Cette crise est-elle une exception regrettable, ou bien un symptôme de l'échec de la diplomatie d'Obama au Moyen-Orient, de l'Égypte à l'Afghanistan ?

Dès son entrée en fonction, Obama s'est fixé quatre objectifs au Moyen-Orient : la stabilisation de l'Iraq avant l'évacuation ; le retrait des troupes de l'Afghanistan, mais en position de force reposant sur un minimum de convergence avec le régime politique du Pakistan ; le déblocage majeur du processus de paix au Moyen-Orient en forçant le premier ministre israélien Benyamin Netanyahou à geler l'implantation des colonies ; et l'ouverture d'un dialogue avec l'Iran sur ses plans nucléaires. Force est de constater que sur ces quatre grandes questions, le bilan d'Obama est plutôt maigre.

Pour ce qui est de l'Iraq, depuis la présidence de George W. Bush, les États-Unis ont cherché à exercer une influence qui fasse contrepoids au pouvoir chiite, pour que le pays puisse créer un système politique plus inclusif, notamment en passant une nouvelle législation encadrant le partage des rentes des exportations pétrolières au sein des communautés chiites, sunnites et kurdes. Hélas, c'est justement le contraire qui est arrivé.

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