Le champ de bataille du budget

MILAN – Les économies mondiales les plus développées, dont les États-Unis constituent de très loin la plus conséquente et la plus importante en termes systémique, sont aujourd’hui confrontées à un ensemble de choix politiques et sociaux difficiles. Le budget américain proposé par le président Barack Obama admet la nécessité de ces choix et compromis, et les appréhende, pour la première fois en cette période d’après-crise, de manière directe et totale.

La proposition d’Obama constitue un document important, franc, et politiquement courageux. Les débats qui s’en suivront détermineront en grande partie la manière dont les États-Unis entendront s’orienter vers un modèle de croissance et d’emploi solide, inclusif et viable, ainsi que la manière dont le prix de cette orientation sera partagé par les Américains de tous âges, de tous niveaux d’éducation, de revenus et de richesse.

Nous savons combien les puissantes forces de la technologie et des marchés mondiaux ont réduit le nombre d’emplois administratifs et ouvriers, déplacé les possibilités d’emploi pour la classe moyenne vers le pan des biens non échangeables de l’économie, et réorienté la croissance du revenu national vers le capital et les emplois supérieurs, les revenus stagnant partout ailleurs. La création d’emplois demeure fébrile, et cet emploi continuer de se désolidariser de la croissance.

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