L’épreuve du feu d’Obama

CAMBRIDGE – Beaucoup vont essayer de fixer les priorités du président Barack Obama, mais une personne en particulier est assurée d’avoir un effet majeur. George W. Bush laisse un héritage peu enviableampnbsp;: une crise économique, deux guerres, la lutte contre le terrorisme et des problèmes au Proche-Orient et ailleurs. Si Obama échoue à vaincre ces incendies, ils consumeront son capital politique, mais s’il se borne à les combattre, il héritera des priorités de Bush. Le nouveau président devra en même temps s’accommoder du passé et dessiner un nouvel avenir.

C’est la crise économique qui figurera avant toute chose sur l’agenda d’Obama, au carrefour de ses priorités nationales et internationales. Il devra stimuler l’économie et éviter les mesures protectionnistes sur le territoire national, tout en prenant la tête de la restructuration du système financier mondial. La coopération avec les autres sera essentielle. Le fait que Bush ait organisé une réunion du G-20 en novembre a créé un précédent utile qui consiste à aller au-delà du G-7 pour inclure des économies émergentes comme la Chine, l’Inde et le Brésil.

Les deux guerres actuelles de l’Amérique doivent figurer en deuxième place. Obama a fait campagne sur la promesse de retirer les brigades de combat américaines (mais pas les soldats engagés dans l’entraînement et dans le contre-terrorisme) d’Irak d’ici mi-2010. L’administration Bush et le gouvernement irakien ont signé un accord de retrait des troupes pour fin 2011. L’efficacité de ces calendriers dépendra des événements sur place, notamment des compromis politiques en Irak et du dialogue avec ses voisins, mais une direction claire a été établie.

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