“Mao-Nixon” 2.0

BEIJING – Este fin de semana, una finca californiana es escenario de la “cumbre de Sunnylands” entre el presidente chino Xi Jinping y su par estadounidense Barack Obama. Esta reunión puede marcar un antes y un después en las relaciones entre las dos mayores economías del mundo. De hecho, lo que Xi desea de la reunión (concretamente, “un nuevo tipo de relación entre las grandes potencias”) se origina conceptualmente en las históricas reuniones entre Mao Zedong y Richard Nixon en 1972.

En 1969, los desafíos más graves a los que se enfrentaba el recientemente electo Nixon eran terminar la Guerra de Vietnam y hacer frente a una Unión Soviética cada vez más agresiva. China era un elemento esencial dentro del esquema general de Nixon para la solución de estos problemas aparentemente intratables.

De hecho, China tuvo un papel especial de asistencia a Vietnam del Norte contra los estadounidenses; y sus relaciones con la Unión Soviética estaban agriándose, a tal punto que llegaron a producirse violentos incidentes en la frontera compartida a lo largo del río Amur. Nixon y su asesor de seguridad nacional, Henry Kissinger, consideraron que había llegado el momento de restaurar las relaciones con China, que también temía las ambiciones hegemónicas de los soviéticos. Para ello, Nixon y Kissinger puentearon al Departamento de Estado y al Congreso de los Estados Unidos e iniciaron contactos directos con China a través de canales clandestinos en Pakistán y Rumania.

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