Paul Lachine

Obama y los dos futuros de Asia

TOKIO – A pesar del implacable desplazamiento del poder económico global hacia el continente asiático, y el ascenso de China como una gran potencia –los principales sucesos históricos de nuestro tiempo, que serán el motor de los asuntos mundiales en el futuro previsible- la atención de los Estados Unidos se ha centrado en otras cuestiones. Los ataques terroristas de 2001, seguidos de las guerras en Irak y Afganistán, la gran contracción de 2008, la primavera árabe, y la crisis de deuda soberana de Europa, todo distrajeron a los Estados Unidos e impidieron que ayudaran a crear una estructura duradera de paz en la que se tuviera en cuenta el resurgimiento actual de Asia.

En noviembre, el presidente estadounidense Barack Obama puede empezar a corregir este desequilibrio cuando sea el anfitrión de la cumbre del Foro de Cooperación Económica Asia-Pacífico, que se realizará en Hawaii, su estado natal. El momento es propicio porque hay una serie de temas críticos sobre Asia que están llegando a un punto de ebullición.

Por ejemplo, las islas, arrecifes y lecho marino del mar de China Meridional son ahora objeto de reclamos opuestos, incluida la audaz afirmación de China de que todo es territorio soberano chino. En la cumbre de la ASEAN (Asociación de Naciones del Sureste Asiático) de este año en Bali, se acordó que todas estas disputas territoriales se resolverían mediante negociaciones bilaterales. Sin embargo, la magnitud de las reclamaciones chinas condenaron el acuerdo desde el principio; de hecho, ahora China insiste en que el mar es uno de los principales  asuntos de interés nacional, al mismo nivel que Taiwán y el Tíbet, y está preparado para luchar por él.

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