核警察

  洛杉矶-四十年前的本月,50多个国家聚集在白宫东厅签署了《不扩散核武器条约》。在其论文集中,美国总统林德·B·约翰逊把该条约称作“至今为止我们采取的降低核战争可能性的最重要的措施”。

现在,随着时间的推移,我们可以评估这个条约是否真地标志着约翰逊总统所希望的“历史性的转折点”。证据显示,虽然该条约的堤防大部分被守住了,但是,也产生了严重的漏洞,促使核警察在当他们断定外交不能停止核扩散的时候使用武力。这种行为是否是未来行为的先驱尚不清楚,但是,鉴于《不扩散核武器条约》没有包含一个有效的执行机制,它增强了持续萦绕在人们心头的担忧。

有一个事实是毫无疑问的:除了三个国家——印度、巴基斯坦和以色列——以及一个退出的国家,北朝鲜之外,《不扩散核武器条约》是签署并核准它的国家的核不扩散制度的法律支柱。该条约的原则仍然很坚决:条约公认的五个拥有核武器的国家——美国、英国、法国、俄罗斯和中国——承诺清除他们的核设施,其他缔约国承诺不取得核武器,并以此交换在遵守有约束力的安全保障制度的情况下,在国际力量的支持下发展民用核能的权利。

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