De la précaution nucléaire à la sécurité nucléaire

WASHINGTON, DC / MOSCOU – Il y a quatre ans, un tsunami dévastateur venait heurter les côtes du Japon. Des vagues de plus de quinze mètres allaient ainsi frapper les digues de la centrale nucléaire de Fukushima Daiichi, rompant son approvisionnement énergétique d’urgence et désactivant ses systèmes de refroidissement.

Cet accident nucléaire est le plus grave depuis la fusion de la centrale de Tchernobyl en 1986. Les enquêteurs ont déterminé que l’une des causes de la catastrophe résidait dans une certaine suffisance : les responsables de l’installation étaient persuadés de la solidité des systèmes de précaution, de même qu’aucune supervision indépendante n’était appliquée.

Cette catastrophe japonaise a incité aux réformes dans le domaine de la sûreté du nucléaire. Mais en matière de sécurité nucléaire, la suffisance demeure un problème majeur. Nous ne pouvons nous permettre d’attendre qu’une tragédie survienne pour amorcer des mesures.

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