Barack Obama Bloomberg/Getty Images

La proliferación de la seguridad

MADRID – La visita de Barack Obama a Hiroshima ha tenido lugar en el epílogo de su mandato y ha estado cargada de un gran simbolismo, por ser el primer presidente de Estados Unidos en acudir a la ciudad y por su visión de la proliferación nuclear. Sus palabras en Hiroshima conectan con el gran discurso del presidente en Praga, pronunciado tan solo unos meses después de llegar a la Casa Blanca.

En la República Checa, se refirió a la amenaza nuclear como la más inmediata y extrema para la seguridad global y se comprometió a disminuir el papel de las armas nucleares en la estrategia de seguridad nacional. En este último y emotivo discurso, resaltó la dimensión moral de la guerra y la necesidad de escapar a la lógica del miedo, que subyace a la posesión de arsenales nucleares y motiva catástrofes como la conmemorada en Japón.

Sin embargo, en los años que separan ambos discursos, la política nuclear de la administración Obama ha evolucionado de manera notable. Al inicio del mandato, una de las grandes áreas de su política exterior fue la proliferación nuclear. En el año 2010 firmó con Rusia, aun presidida por Medvedev, los acuerdos START, por el cual ambos países se comprometían a reducir las armas nucleares estratégicas de manera considerable para el año 2018. Entonces las relaciones con Rusia pasaban por un buen momento – Hillary Clinton y Sergey Lavrov ya habían anunciado el famoso “reset”– y la cooperación, no solo en el ámbito de la no proliferación nuclear, ofrecía esperanzas. Lamentablemente, no duró mucho tiempo.

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