nuclear fusion Sandia Labs/Flickr

把太阳装进瓶中

伦敦——今年12月,各国领导人将汇聚巴黎召开联合国气候变化会议,届时他们将再次尝试制定一项温室气体减排的全球性协议。尽管谈判代表们全力达成妥协难免让人感觉似曾相识,但他们绝对不能放弃。无论考虑何种政治经济因素,都无法改变这样一个事实:如果全球气温比工业革命前上升超过2℃,给地球造成的后果将是灾难性的。

但减排并不是唯一的挑战。事实上,即使到2050年我们完成向清洁世界的过渡,长远看我们还需要确定如何满足不断膨胀的全球人口对能源永不知足的需求——上述需求仅靠可再生能源势必无法满足。因此我们现在就要投资补充可再生能源及确保未来数百年电力供应的其他技术。其中最具前景的技术是核聚变——核聚变为太阳和星星提供了源源不断的能量。

地球核聚变的主要能源来自锂和氘(氢的同位素),这两种主要集中在海水和地壳中的元素是低碳能源的源头。核聚变电站每年只需要约450千克燃料,既不会造成大气污染,也不会发生导致环境放射性污染的事故。

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