Steve Ansul

Desarme nuclear y vecinos bravucones

MADRID– Hace veinticinco años en una cumbre celebrada en Rejkjavik, Islandia, el presidente estadounidense Ronald Reagan sorprendió al mundo y a su homólogo soviético, Mikhail Gorbachev, al proponer la eliminación completa y global de todas las armas nucleares. Por desgracia, el escepticismo de las altas esferas del sector de la Defensa de los Estados Unidos, junto con el rechazo firme de Reagan de abandonar su iniciativa de defensa estratégica, acabó con esta iniciativa audaz antes de que naciera.

Fue una oportunidad que desgraciadamente se perdió porque un acuerdo entre los Estados Unidos y la Unión Soviética, alcanzado en lo que en esencia todavía era un sistema internacional binario, podría haber tenido un verdadero impacto global. Aunque las reservas rusas y estadounidenses siguen representando más del 90% de las ojivas nucleares mundiales, la meta de desarme, Global Zero, del presidente de los Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, está resultando ser mucho más difícil de alcanzar teniendo en cuenta ahora cuánto ha cambiado el mundo desde el final de la Guerra Fría.

No solo ha aumentado el número de Estados con capacidad nuclear, sino que  la llamada “renaissance nuclear” –el renacimiento de la energía nuclear debido a los crecientes precios del petróleo y las preocupaciones por el medio ambiente- ha hecho que las tecnologías nucleares se usen cada vez más. Este resurgimiento tiene importantes implicaciones para la proliferación nuclear.

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