Steve Ansul

Désarmement nucléaire et intimidation régionale

MADRID – Il y a vingt-cinq ans, lors d’un sommet à Reykjavík en Islande, le président américain Ronald Reagan avait surpris le monde, et son homologue soviétique Mikhaïl Gorbatchev, en proposant une élimination globale et complète de toutes les armes nucléaires. Malheureusement, le scepticisme de l’establishment de la défense américaine, ainsi que le refus catégorique de Ronald Reagan d’abandonner son Initiative de Défense Stratégique, aura étouffé cette démarche avant même qu’elle puisse voir le jour.

Ce fut une occasion tragiquement manquée, car un accord américano-soviétique, obtenu dans ce qui était encore essentiellement un système international binaire, aurait eu une réelle signification globale. Même si les arsenaux américains et russes représentent encore aujourd’hui plus de 90% des têtes nucléaires de la planète, l’objectif de désarmement du président Barack Obama, le Zéro Global, s’avère bien plus difficile à accomplir compte tenu des nombreux changements survenus dans le monde depuis la fin de la guerre froide.

Le nombre d’états nucléaires a bien sûr augmenté, mais la soi-disant « renaissance nucléaire » - un regain de la puissance nucléaire résultant de l’augmentation des prix pétroliers et des préoccupations environnementales – a aussi encouragé l’utilisation croissante des technologies nucléaires. Ce regain a d’importantes implications en ce qui concerne la prolifération nucléaire.

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