John Brownlow/Flickr

大阻力

纽约—2008年,金融危机爆发后不久,决策者成功地阻止了大衰退滑向第二次大萧条,秘诀就在于阻止了保护主义者和内向政策的要求。但如今反对全球化——以及随之而来的商品、服务、资本、劳动力和技术的更自由的流动——的力量来临了。

这一新民族主义具有不同的经济形式:贸易壁垒、资产保护、针对外国直接投资的行动、偏袒本国工人和企业的政策、反移民措施、国家资本主义以及资源民族主义。在政治领域,民粹主义、反全球化、反移民甚至赤裸裸的种族主义和反犹主义政党正在崛起。

这些势力厌恶超国家治理机构的缩写简称——EU(欧盟)、UN(联合国)、WTO(世界贸易组织)和IMF(国际货币基金组织)等——这些机构都是全球化的必要条件。甚至成为过去二十年全球化缩影的或联网也面临惨遭分割的前景,因为极权国家——包括中国、伊朗、土耳其和俄罗斯——试图限制社交媒体的接入和镇压言论自由。

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