Sin voz en el G-20

BOGOTÁ, LIMA, SANTIAGO – La coordinación económica internacional es tan necesaria como elusiva. Durante la crisis financiera global, el G-20 se convirtió en el principal foro para acordar sobre principios básicos en áreas como la respuesta de política fiscal y el papel del Fondo Monetario Internacional. Al subrayar la necesidad de evitar el proteccionismo comercial y otras políticas para aumentar la competitividad, también ejerció cierta presión sobre los gobiernos respecto de qué no hacer. En estos sentidos, el G-20 claramente estaba un paso adelante.

Últimamente, sin embargo, al mismo tiempo que el G-20 intentó reconciliar intereses económicos nacionales y estrategias de recuperación divergentes, ha tenido mucho menos éxito con relación a sus reuniones iniciales en Washington y Londres en 2009. De hecho, la cumbre de Seúl del G-20 a comienzos de noviembre expuso una profunda división.

Los desequilibrios globales y las desalineaciones monetarias bien podrían hacer naufragar la recuperación global y arrojar al mundo al fango proteccionista. La mayoría de las naciones sufrirían, pero aquellas que quedaran atrapadas en el medio son las que más sufrirían. Hoy, las economías emergentes de América Latina podrían convertirse en las primeras víctimas en el fuego cruzado económico entre Estados Unidos y China.

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