Pas entendu au G20

BOGOTA, LIMA, SANTIAGO – La coordination économique internationale est aussi nécessaire qu’insaisissable. Le G20 est devenu, à l’occasion de la crise financière globale, le principal forum pour convenir des principes de base sur les questions de politiques budgétaires et du rôle du Fonds Monétaire International. En insistant sur le fait qu’il fallait éviter de tomber dans le protectionnisme commercial et d’adopter les mesures de type chacun pour soi, il a aussi fait pression sur les gouvernements par rapport à ce qu’il ne fallait pas faire. En ce sens, le G20 avait réellement été une avancée.  

Plus récemment, cependant, il semble n’avoir pas été aussi efficace que lors de ses précédentes réunions de Washington et de Londres en 2009 pour tenter de réconcilier les divergences d’intérêts économiques et de stratégies pour stimuler la reprise. Le sommet du G20 de Séoul au début de novembre a vraiment révélé un profond désaccord.

Les déséquilibres globaux et les désalignements monétaires pourraient bien anéantir la reprise globale et pousser le monde dans le bourbier protectionniste. La plupart des états en souffriraient mais ceux pris entre deux feux en pâtiraient le plus. Aujourd’hui, les économies émergentes de l’Amérique Latine pourraient être parmi les premières victimes des feux croisés entre les Etats-Unis et la Chine.

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