David Cameron number10gov/Flickr

Gute Menschen, schlechtes Urteilsvermögen

NEW YORK – Vidkun Quisling, Norwegens Faschistenführer während des Krieges, dessen Name zu einen Synonym für die Kollaboration mit dem Bösen geworden ist, lebte mit seiner Frau in einer ziemlich grandiosen Villa außerhalb von Oslo. Diese Villa ist dient heute als das norwegische Zentrum für Holocaust- und Minderheitenstudien – eine schöne Umwidmung eines befleckten Ortes.

Anfang dieses Jahres besuchte ich das Zentrum aus Anlass einer faszinierenden Ausstellung zur 1814 verkündeten ersten Verfassung des unabhängigen Norwegens. Sie war ein bemerkenswert aufgeklärtes und fortschrittliches Dokument, verfasst von Gelehrten mit umfassendem geschichtlichen, rechtswissenschaftlichem und philosophischem Hintergrund. Einige waren Experten für klassische griechische Literatur, andere für das antike Hebräisch; alle waren begeisterte Leser von Kant und Voltaire.

Eine besonders bemerkenswerte Klausel freilich enthält das Dokument: Artikel II proklamiert in dem evangelisch-lutherischen Staat die Religionsfreiheit, mit der Einschränkung jedoch, dass „Juden trotzdem vom Besuch des Reiches ausgeschlossen sind.“ Das war selbst für die damalige Zeit merkwürdig. Der im selben Jahr besiegte Napoleon hatte den Juden in den von ihm eroberten Ländern die Bürgerrechte eingeräumt. Und just bevor die Klausel in das norwegische Recht einging, hatte der König von Dänemark den Juden in seinem Reich die Staatsbürgerschaft gewährt.

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