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Attention aux erreurs de raisonnement, même pour une bonne cause

NEW YORK – Le dirigeant fasciste norvégien dont le nom est devenu synonyme de coopération avec le diable, Vidkun Quisling, vivait avec sa femme dans une magnifique villa proche d'Oslo. Cette villa héberge maintenant le Centre norvégien pour l'étude de l'Holocauste et des religions minoritaires, une transformation bienvenue pour un tel lieu.

Au début de l'année j'y suis allé pour voir une exposition fascinante sur la première Constitution norvégienne promulguée en 1814, un texte profondément humaniste et progressiste, enraciné dans l'Histoire, le droit et la philosophie. Certains de ses auteurs, des experts, étaient des spécialistes de la Grèce antique, d'autres de la culture hébraïque, et tous des lecteurs attentifs de Kant et de Voltaire.

Néanmoins cette Constitution comporte une clause surprenante : son article II qui établit la liberté de religion dans cet Etat luthérien décrète que "les Juifs ne pourront pas s'établir dans le royaume". C'était étrange, même à cette époque. Napoléon qui avait été vaincu cette année là avait garanti les droits civiques des juifs dans les pays qu'il avait conquis. Et peu avant l'introduction de cette clause dans la Constitution norvégienne, le roi du Danemark avait garanti la citoyenneté des juifs dans son royaume.

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