David Cameron number10gov/Flickr

善良的人,糟糕的判断

纽约——挪威的战时法西斯领袖维德孔·吉斯林的名字已成为与邪恶狼狈为奸的代名词,奥斯陆郊外一栋宏伟的别墅曾是他和他妻子的住所。这栋别墅现在已被改建为挪威大屠杀及宗教少数族裔研究中心,可谓是对这栋曾被玷污建筑不错的改造。

今年初,我去那里参观了关于1814年首部独立挪威宪法的很有意思的展览。这是一部极其开明进步的文献,由精通历史、法律和哲学的渊博学者负责起草。其中有些人是希腊典籍专家,还有人非常了解古代希伯来;所有人都熟读康德和伏尔泰。

但这部宪法有一项特别条款:第二条宣布路德州宗教自由,但告诫“犹太人仍不得进入这一区域。”这条规定实属罕见,即使在当时也同样如此。同年被打败的拿破仑已经在被征服国为犹太人争取到公民权利。而就在这项规定载入挪威法律之前,丹麦国王已经在王国内部授予犹太人公民身份。

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