Qui a tué le téléphone Nokia ?

HELSINKI – Il semble y avoir une loi d’airain voulant que dans le secteur des technologies les entreprises de pointe finissent par perdre leur avance – bien souvent, la chute est rapide et prononcée. Le pionnier des téléphones portables de Nokia, l’une des plus grandes réussites de l’Europe dans le domaine des technologies, n’a pu y échapper, perdant sa part du marché en deux ans à peine. Les nouvelles sociétés qui dominent le secteur, Apple et Google – sans compter les géantes des autres secteurs technologiques – éviteront-elles le sort de Nokia ?

En 2007, Nokia comptait pour plus de 40 % des ventes mondiales de téléphones portables. Mais les consommateurs avaient une nette préférence pour les téléphones intelligents à écran tactile. Au lancement de l’iPhone d’Apple au milieu de la même année, la part de marché de Nokia s’est rapidement affaissée et les recettes se sont mises à péricliter. À la fin de 2013, Nokia cédait son activité dans le secteur des téléphones à Microsoft.

Ce qui a scellé le sort de Nokia dans ce secteur était une succession de décisions prises par Stephen Elop dans le cadre de ses fonctions de PDG, qu’il occupait dès octobre 2010. À l’époque où Elop était à la barre de Nokia, la valeur boursière de la société baissait de 18 millions € par jour – faisant de son mandat de direction, selon les résultats financiers, le pire de toute l’histoire.

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