Jak zvládnout naši městskou budoucnost

NEW YORK – Do konce tohoto století bude naši planetu obývat deset miliard lidí, přičemž 8,5 miliardy bude bydlet ve velkých městech. Mohl by to být důvod k nočním můrám. Při dostatečné politické vůli, vizi a kreativitě – spolu s některými jednoduchými a praktickými změnami politiky – však možná budeme schopni vytvořit města snů.

Velká města představují těžiště hospodářské a společenské síly. Jsou tahouny národního a globálního rozvoje, neboť na jednom místě soustřeďují schopnosti, myšlenky i zdroje. Rychlý rozvoj měst však přináší vysoké náklady. Expandující města pohlcují půdu, která by se jinak využívala k produkci potravin. Vyčerpávají vodní zdroje, tvoří téměř 70% globální spotřeby energie a produkují více než 70% emisí skleníkových plynů.

Má-li být globální růst trvale udržitelný a spravedlivý, budeme muset změnit rovnováhu mezi rychlou urbanizací a neúprosnou spotřebou zdrojů, kterou tato urbanizace přiživuje. Takový je hlavní cíl Konference OSN o trvale udržitelném rozvoji, jež varovala před bezpříkladnými tlaky, které hospodářský růst vyvine v nadcházejících desetiletích na infrastrukturu (zejména na dopravu), bydlení, nakládání s odpady (především s nebezpečnými látkami) a dodávky energie.

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