WTO Geneva Fabrice Coffrini/Getty Images

Ne pleurons pas la mort des accords commerciaux

CAMBRIDGE – Les soixante-dix ans qui suivirent la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale furent une ère d’accords commerciaux. Les grandes économies mondiales y furent perpétuellement occupées à des négociations concernant leurs échanges, d’où naquirent deux grands pactes multilatéraux, l’Accord général sur les tarifs douaniers et le commerce (AGETAC – GATT pour l’acronyme anglais) et le traité établissant l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC). En outre, plus de 500 accords commerciaux régionaux et bilatéraux furent signés, pour la plupart après que l’OMC remplaça l’AGETAC, en 1995.

Les révoltes populistes de 2016 mettront probablement fin à cette frénésie d’accords. Si les pays en développement peuvent toujours s’engager dans des négociations de portée plus limitée, les deux poids lourds encore sur la table, le Partenariat Transpacifique (PTP – TPP) et le Partenariat transatlantique de commerce et d’investissement (PTCI – TTIP) sont pour ainsi dire morts après l’élection de Donald Trump à la présidence des États-Unis.

Nous ne devrions pas pleurer leur trépas.

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