Pas de paix sans développement

Toute personne intéressée par le maintien de la paix, la réduction de la pauvreté et l'avenir de l'Afrique devrait lire le nouveau rapport du Programme des Nations Unies pour l'environnement (PNUE) intitulé « Évaluation environnementale post-conflit du Soudan ». S’il peut sembler technique au premier abord, ce rapport est en fait bien plus que cela : il s'agit d'une étude frappante sur la façon dont l'environnement naturel, la pauvreté et la croissance de la population interagissent et poussent l’homme à commettre des actes désastreux, à l’image de la violence au Darfour.

Lorsqu'une guerre éclate, comme au Darfour, la plupart des décideurs politiques cherchent une explication et une solution politique. Cette démarche est compréhensible, mais passe pourtant à côté d'un élément essentiel. En comprenant le rôle de la géographie, du climat et de la croissance de la population dans le conflit, il est possible de trouver des solutions plus réalistes que si l'on s'en tient aux seules politiques.

La pauvreté extrême est une cause majeure, et engendre souvent la violence. Les zones les plus pauvres du monde, comme le Darfour, sont bien plus à même d'entrer en guerre que les zones plus riches. Ce n'est pas simplement une question de sens commun, car cet état de fait a été vérifié par des études et des analyses statistiques. Selon le PNUE, « il existe un lien étroit entre la dégradation des terres, la désertification et le conflit au Darfour ».

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