Chatrný rozvoj, chatrný mír

Každý se zájmem o budování míru, potírání chudoby a budoucnost Afriky by si měl přečíst novou zprávu Programu OSN pro životní prostředí (UNEP) nazvanou Sudan: Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment (Súdán: Postkonfliktní environmentální hodnocení). Může to znít jako název odborné zprávy o súdánském životním prostředí, ale jde o mnohem víc. Jedná se o živou studii toho, jak přírodní prostředí, bída a populační růst mohou vzájemně působit a podnítit děsivé člověkem vyvolané pohromy, jako je násilí v Dárfúru.

Když vypukne válka, tak jako v Dárfúru, většina zákonodárců hledá politické vysvětlení a politické řešení. To je sice pochopitelné, ale míjí to podstatu. Porozumíme-li úloze geografických podmínek, klimatu a populačního růstu v konfliktu, dokážeme najít realističtější řešení, než když budeme lpět jen na politice samotné.

Krajní chudoba je významná příčina – a předznamenání – násilí. U nejchudších míst na světě, třeba Dárfúru, je mnohem pravděpodobnější, že půjdou do války, než u míst bohatších. To není jen úvaha zdravého rozumu, ale fakt ověřený studiemi a statistickými analýzami. Jak napsal UNEP, „Existuje velice silná vazba mezi devastací krajiny, dezertifikací a konfliktem v Dárfúru.“

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