Russlands Krimküste?

MOSKAU – In seinem Roman Die Kriminsel stellte sich Wasilij Aksjonow die Unabhängigkeit dieser Region von der Sowjetunion vor. Aksjonow, ein Schriftsteller und Dissident, der kurz nach der Samizdat (Untergrund)-Veröffentlichung des Buches nach Amerika emigrierte, wird heute als Prophet gefeiert. Aber seine Prophezeihung wurde auf den Kopf gestellt: Die heutige Krim will keine Unabhängigkeit von der Ukraine. Sie will weiter von Russland abhängig sein.

Die Krim, traditionell das Juwel in der Krone des Imperiums, Luxusspielplatz von Zaren und Sowjetkommissaren – und, noch wichtiger, die Heimat der russischen Schwarzmeerflotte – wurde 1954 unter Nikita Chruschtschow Teil der Ukraine. Nach dem Zusammenbruch der Sowjetunion 1991 schien der russische Präsident vergessen zu haben, sie zurück zu fordern, und so behielt die Ukraine ein Territorium, in dem sich fast 60% der zwei Millionen Einwohner als Russen betrachten.

Zur Verteidigung Chruschtschows (meines Urgroßvaters) muss man sagen, dass es kaum einen Unterschied machte, ob die Krim zu Russland oder zur Ukraine gehörte. Schließlich waren sie beide Teil des Sowjetimperiums. Aber in den letzten zwanzig Jahren hat Russland versucht, die Halbinsel zurück zu gewinnen. Gerüchten zufolge soll der Kreml die Ausstellung von Pässen für Krimbewohner beschleunigen, und seine Verbündeten – wie Aleksey Tschalji, der neue Bürgermeister von Sewastopol – bevölkern seine politischen Büros.

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