Dean Rohrer

Le Nigeria avance lentement vers une identité nationale

ABUJA – Les Nigérians aiment le théâtre politique, en particulier s’il est bruyant, coloré et s’il met en scène une riche palette de « bons » et « mauvais » personnages. Pareils mélodrames ont abondé entre Novembre 2009, lorsque le Président souffrant Umaru Yar’Adua fut évacué par les airs hors du pays afin de recevoir un traitement, et les élections qui viennent de se tenir, pour la quatrième fois de l’histoire au Nigéria depuis la fin du régime militaire en 1999. Selon les résultats officiels, c’est Goodluck Jonathan, qui avait succédé à Yar’Adua après sa mort pour devenir le candidat du parti au pouvoir le People’s Democratic Party (PDP), qui a été proclamé Président le 29 mai.

Jonathan était le plus improbable des candidats dans le combat sans pitié pour le pouvoir présidentiel. Il est un Ijaw, une minorité ethnique du Sud-Sud, une des six régions politiques du Nigéria, alors que la gouvernance du pays a été historiquement dominée par les trois groupes ethniques les plus importants – les Hausa-Fulani, habitant essentiellement le Nord-Ouest et le Nord-Est, les Igbo du Sud-Est, et les Yoruba dans le Sud-Ouest. Mais au terme de négociations ethniques complexes, Jonathan est devenu le compagnon de campagne de Yar’Adua lors des élections frauduleuses de 2007.

Au début de la campagne électorale, Jonathan a dû écarté de puissants politiciens conservateurs du nord, qui estimaient que l’accord informel du PDP établissant la rotation régulière du pouvoir entre le nord et le sud donnait droit à cinq années de pouvoir supplémentaires pour leur région. Après tout, soutenaient-ils, Olusegun Obasanjo, le prédécesseur de Yar’Adua originaire du sud à majorité chrétienne, avait gardé le pouvoir huit années durant.

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