Нигерия: долг или демократия?

КЕМБРИДЖ: Поступки богатых стран могут сыграть решающую роль в тех случаях, когда бедные, погрязшие в долгах страны сражаются за переход от диктатуры к демократии. Если богатые страны будут настаивать на погашении долгов и мерах жесткой экономии, то вполне возможно, что такими действиями они смогут подорвать социальную стабильность, необходимую для укрепления новой демократии.

Однако, никогда не следует недооценивать жадность, близорукость и всеобщее безразличие богатых стран. В последние недели европейские страны и, по-видимому, МВФ, отвергли просьбы новой нигерийской демократии о сокращении долга страны. Вместо этого они заявляют, что в текущем году Нигерия должна увеличить затраты по обслуживанию долга, и ей следует отказаться от призывов к сокращению долга. Французское правительство, являющееся организатором комиссии правительств-кредиторов (так называемого Парижского Клуба), несет основную долю ответственности за такую отъявленную политику, но многие другие правительства и международные агентства разделяют его вину.

Казалось бы, Франция, Великобритания, Соединенные Штаты и МВФ могли бы быть более осведомлены в вопросах новейшей истории. Семь лет тому назад Нигерия шатко и неуверенно двигалась по направлению к демократизации. В начале 1994 года временно руководящее страной правительство намеревалось провести всеобщие выборы. Однако в конце 1993 года МВФ и Всемирный Банк вынудили Нигерию отменить субсидирование нефтепродуктов внутри страны в рамках программы жесткой экономии, на которой настаивали кредиторы Нигерии.

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