Schuld oder Demokratie?

Wenn die armen, schwer verschuldeten Staaten den Weg von der Totalität zu der Demokratie zu erkämpfen suchen, können die Taten der reichen Staaten eine entscheidende Bedeutung haben. Falls die reichen Staaten eine Rückzahlung der Schulden und Sparmaßnahmen fordern werden, so vernichten sie dadurch wahrscheinlich die soziale Stabilität, die dazu notwendig ist, daß die Demokratie Wurzeln fassen kann.

Die Unersättlichkeit, Kurzsichtigkeit und der allgemeine Mangel an Interesse zwischen den reichen Staaten sollte man aber nie unterschätzen. In den letzten Wochen lehnten die europäischen Staaten – und augenscheinlich auch der IWF – die Gesuche der neuen nigerianischen Demokratie um den Schuldabbau ab. Statt dessen sagen sie, daß Nigeria die Rückzahlung der Schulden beschleunigen sollte und die Aufforderungen zu ihrem Abbau unterlassen sollte. Die französische Regierung als der Organisator des Regierungsausschusses der Gläubigerstaaten (eines sog. Pariserklubs) trägt für diese himmelschreiende Politik die Hauptverantwortung, aber schuld haben auch viele weiteren Regierungen und internationale Organisationen.

Man würde annehmen, daß Frankreich, Großbritannien, die Vereinigten Staaten und der IWF sich besser der jüngsten Historie bewußt sein werden. Vor sieben Jahren war Nigeria auf dem steinigen und täuschenden Weg zur Demokratie. Eine provisorische Regierung wurde mit der Aufsicht über die Vorbereitung zur Nationalwahl zu Beginn des Jahres 1994 beauftragt. Und trotzdem zwangen der IWF und die Weltbank Ende 1993 Nigeria, daß es als einen Bestandteil der Sparmaßnahmen, die seine Schuldner forderten, die Zuschüsse für die heimischen Erdölprodukte aufhebt.

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