没有人民的民粹主义

普林斯顿——(抛开反对派对马杜罗获胜是否真实提出的质疑不谈) ,尼古拉斯·马杜罗以微弱优势在委内瑞拉总统大选中获胜提出了一个重要的疑问:没有真正受欢迎、有魅力的领导者民粹主义究竟还能否发展,抑或像查韦斯主义这样的运动一旦失去被奉若神明的领袖之后注定会逐渐走向没落?

在许多观察家看来,如果没有反建制领袖和自觉被主流政党所忽视的民众间直接有力的联系,民粹主义根本是无法想象的。但人们过高估计了领袖在民粹主义中所起的作用。事实上,因为民粹主义是一种重要的政治现象,上述观点和其他两种观点——即民粹主义在某种程度上是一种对直接民主的呼唤,以及民粹主义者只能抗议,但永远无法执政——都需要有所改变。

民粹主义不像自由主义或马克思主义,它并不是一套鲜明连贯的政治理念。但也不能简单地将其归结为用简单化的政策建议迎合大众的政治运动。虽然民粹主义者或许特别乐于崇尚肤浅的解决方案,但这种策略并非由他们所垄断。此外,责难民粹主义者的智慧和态度只会给他们以可乘之机:看看这些根深蒂固的狂妄的精英,他们怎样对普通民众的常识不屑一顾。

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