Neue Welt, weniger Ordnung

Wenn wir auf die Revolutionen zurückblicken, die in diesem Monat vor 15 Jahren Europa und die Welt erschütterten, sollten wir uns an dem Erreichten freuen - an der Freiheit, Demokratie und der Überwindung der 40 Jahre währenden Teilung Europas. Wir sollten jedoch auch Bilanz ziehen über die verpassten Chancen nach dem friedlichen Ende des Kalten Krieges.

Das Ende des Kalten Krieges war letztlich die Folge der in der Sowjetunion ablaufenden Revolution. Die demokratiefreundlichen politischen Grundsätze von Glasnost und Perestrojka, die ich Mitte der 1980er Jahre bekannt gab, kamen jedoch nicht einfach aus dem Nichts. Sie standen in der Tradition der Reformen Nikita Chruschtschows während der 1950er und 1960er Jahre und derjenigen Alexej Kossygins in der Folgezeit.

Heute betrachten viele jene Bemühungen, das sozialistische System zu „erneuern" - es tatsächlich für die Menschen zum Funktionieren zu bringen - als von vornherein zum Scheitern verurteilt. Tatsächlich jedoch waren diese frühen Reformen schwieriger durchzuführen als diejenigen, die ich selbst in den 1980er und 1990er Jahren einleitete. Während meiner Präsidentschaft mussten wir eine demokratische Atmosphäre heranwachsen lassen, doch dies war nur deshalb möglich, weil die Menschen nicht länger von Furcht überwältigt waren.

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