Microeconomía, macroeconomía, mesoeconomía y metaeconomía

HONG KONG – En vista de la crisis que pesa sobre le economía y los mercados financieros mundiales, no es de extrañar que se esté haciendo un reexamen profundo de los principios de la economía moderna. Parece que las voces disidentes de la profesión están llegando por fin a un gran auditorio.

Por ejemplo, el premio Nobel Ronald H. Coase se ha quejado de que la microeconomía esté llena de modelos de caja negra que no estudian las relaciones contractuales reales entre las empresas y los mercados. Señaló que, cuando los costos de transacción son bajos y los derechos de propiedad están bien determinados, unos contratos privados innovadores podrían resolver los problemas de actuaciones colectivas, como, por ejemplo, la contaminación, pero las autoridades dependen en gran medida de instrumentos fiscales, por la obsesión de los economistas con una teoría simplista de los precios.

Otro premio Nobel, Paul Krugman, ha afirmado que a lo largo de los tres últimos decenios la macroeconomía ha sido en el mejor de los casos inútil y en el peor perjudicial. Sostiene que los economistas estuvieron ciegos ante el catastrófico fracaso de la macroeconomía, porque confundieron la belleza o la elegancia de los modelos teóricos con la verdad.

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