Микро-, макро-, мезо- и мета экономики

ГОНКОНГ. Неудивительно, что в условиях кризиса, отягчающего мировую экономику и финансовые рынки, полным ходом идет пересмотр основных экономических принципов. Подавляемые диссидентские голоса профессионалов, судя по всему, наконец достигли ушей широкой аудитории.

Например, нобелевский лауреат Рональд Х. Коуз жаловался, что микроэкономика наполнена моделями с «черными ящиками», которые не уделяют должного внимания изучению фактических договорных отношений между рынками и фирмами. Он отметил, что при низких транзакционных издержках и четко определенных правах собственности инновационные частные контракты могут решить такие проблемы коллективных действий, как загрязнение окружающей среды, однако, благодаря одержимым упрощенной теорией цен экономистам, политики в основном полагаются на финансовые инструменты.

Другой нобелевский лауреат Пол Кругман заявляет, что в течение последних трех десятилетий теории макроэкономики в лучшем случае были бесполезны, а в худшем – вредны. Он утверждает, что экономисты не углядели катастрофическую макронеудачу, потому что они приняли красоту и элегантность теоретических моделей за истину.

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