Mikro-, Makro-, Meso- und Metaökonomie

HONGKONG – Angesichts der Krise, die auf der Weltwirtschaft und den Finanzmärkten lastet, ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass die Leitgedanken der modernen Wirtschaftswissenschaften grundlegend überdacht werden. Es scheint als würden die Andersdenkenden dieser Disziplin endlich in einer breiteren Öffentlichkeit Gehör finden.

So beklagt etwa der Nobelpreisträger Ronald H. Coase, dass in der Mikroökonomie eine Fülle so genannter „Black-Box-Modelle“ zur Anwendung kommt, in denen die Untersuchung der tatsächlichen vertraglichen Beziehungen zwischen Unternehmen und Märkten unberücksichtigt bleibt. Er wies darauf hin, dass innovative privatrechtliche Verträge Probleme des kollektiven Handelns wie etwa Umweltverschmutzung lösen könnten, wenn die Transaktionskosten gering und die Eigentumsrechte klar definiert sind. Politische Entscheidungsträger greifen jedoch weitgehend auf fiskalische Instrumente zurück, was dem hartnäckigen Festhalten der Wirtschaftswissenschaftler an einer allzu simplen Preistheorie geschuldet ist.

Ein weiterer Nobelpreisträger, Paul Krugman, hat behauptet, dass Makroökonomie in den vergangenen dreißig Jahren im besten Fall nutzlos und im schlimmsten Fall schädlich gewesen sei. Ihm zufolge sind Ökonomen blind für das verhängnisvolle makroökonomische Versagen geworden, weil sie die Schönheit oder die Eleganz theoretischer Modelle fälschlicherweise für die Wahrheit gehalten haben.

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