Nuevas reglas para la economía global

CAMBRIDGE – Supongamos que los principales estrategas políticos del mundo se volvieran a reunir en Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, para diseñar un nuevo orden económico global. Naturalmente estarían preocupados por los problemas de hoy: la crisis de la eurozona, la recuperación global, la regulación financiera, los desequilibrios macroeconómicos internacionales y demás. Pero abordar estas cuestiones exigiría que los líderes reunidos se elevaran por encima de ellas y consideraran la solidez de los acuerdos económicos globales en general.

He aquí siete principios lógicos de gobernancia económica global sobre los que podrían llegar a un acuerdo (los analizo con más detalle en mi nuevo libro, The Globalization Paradox).

1. Los mercados deben estar profundamente incorporados a los sistemas de gobernancia. La idea de que los mercados se autorregulan recibió un golpe mortal en la reciente crisis financiera y se la debería enterrar de una vez por todas. Los mercados requieren que otras instituciones sociales los respalden. Se basan en tribunales, marcos legales y reguladores para establecer e implementar reglas. Dependen de funciones estabilizadoras que ofrecen los bancos centrales y la política fiscal contracíclica. Necesitan el compromiso político que la tributación redistributiva, las redes de seguridad y el seguro social ayudan a generar. Y todo esto es válido también para los mercados globales.

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