Nuove regole per l’economia globale

CAMBRIDGE – Supponiamo che i principali policymakers del mondo si incontrino nuovamente a Bretton Woods, nello New Hamp­shire, per realizzare un nuovo ordine economico globale. Sarebbero naturalmente preoccupati degli odierni problemi: la crisi dell’Eurozona, la ripresa globale, la regolamentazione finanziaria, gli squilibri macroeconomici internazionali. I leader riuniti dovrebbero superarli e considerare la validità dei progetti economici globali.

Prenderò in considerazione sette principi di governance economica globale sui quali potrebbero convenire (e che tratto in dettaglio nel mio nuovo libro The Globalization Paradox).

1. I mercati devono essere profondamente incorporati nei sistemi di governance. L’idea che i mercati siano autoregolamentati ha ricevuto un colpo mortale nella recente crisi finanziaria e bisognerebbe metterci una pietra sopra una volta per tutte. I mercati necessitano di altre istituzioni a loro supporto. Contano su tribunali, quadri giuridici e regolatori per stabilire e applicare le norme. Dipendono dalle funzioni di stabilizzazione garantite dalle banche centrali e dalla politica fiscale anticiclica. Esigono il sostegno della politica sul fronte della tassazione redistributiva, delle reti di sicurezza e dell’assicurazione sociale. E tutto ciò vale anche per i mercati globali.

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