Paul Lachine

Nuevas reglas para el dinero especulativo

NUEVA YORK – Los flujos de capital hacia las economías de los mercados emergentes han sido una calesita con grandes altibajos durante décadas. El año pasado, el mundo fue testigo de otro auge, con un tsunami de capital, carteras en acciones e inversiones de renta fija que invadió aquellos países de los mercados emergentes que, según lo percibido, tenían sólidos fundamentos macroeconómicos, de política y financieros.

Estos ingresos de capital están impulsados en parte por factores cíclicos de corto plazo (diferenciales de tasas de interés y un muro de liquidez en busca de activos que arrojen mayores rendimientos ya que las tasas de política cero y un mayor alivio cuantitativo reducen las oportunidades en las economías avanzadas rezagadas). Pero también entran en juego factores seculares de más largo plazo. Estos incluyen los diferenciales de crecimiento de largo plazo de los mercados emergentes en relación a las economías avanzadas; la mayor voluntad por parte de los inversores para diversificarse más allá de sus mercados internos; y la expectativa de una apreciación nominal y real de largo plazo de las monedas de los mercados emergentes.

En vista de todo esto, el interrogante de política más crítico en los mercados emergentes hoy es cómo responder a los ingresos de capital que inevitablemente harán aumentar sus tipos de cambio y pondrán en riesgo el crecimiento liderado por las exportaciones.

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