Un nouvel espoir contre les changements climatiques

En se mettant d’accord sur un plan d’action lors des négociations internationales qui ont eu lieu ce mois-ci à Bali, en Indonésie, la communauté mondiale a fait un pas important dans la gestion des changements climatiques. Certes, ce plan peut sembler assez faible, puisqu’il engage principalement les pays à d’autres négociations plutôt qu’à des actions spécifiques, mais je reste optimiste, et ce pour trois raisons.

Tout d’abord, la communauté internationale a été suffisamment soudée pour forcer les États-Unis à abandonner leur intransigeance. Ensuite, la feuille de route témoigne d’un certain équilibre des considérations. Enfin, des solutions réalistes, permettant de combiner développement économique et contrôle des gaz à effet de serre, sont possibles.

La première étape franchie à Bali a été de sortir de l’impasse dans laquelle se trouvait la question des changements climatiques au niveau international depuis la signature du protocole de Kyoto il y a une dizaine d’années. Cette fois-ci, la communauté internationale s’est unie, allant jusqu’à huer la négociatrice en chef de la délégation américaine, à tel point qu’elle a changé de position et accepté de signer le plan d’action. De même, les réticences à signer de grands pays en développement comme la Chine et l’Inde semblent disparaître, bien qu’il reste un travail important pour atteindre un accord mondial auquel pourront adhérer aussi bien les pays riches que les pays pauvres.

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