Les nouveaux moteurs verts de la croissance

Vendredi, le secrétaire général de l'ONU Ban Ki-Moon a publié le rapport final du groupe consultatif de haut niveau sur le financement de la lutte contre le changement climatique (AGF). En notre qualité de membres du secteur privé de l'AGF, nous sommes fiers du travail accompli. La note de synthèse expose clairement les options disponibles pour mobiliser 100 milliards de dollars chaque année en faveur de l'atténuation des changements climatiques et de l'adaptation à ces changements dans les pays en voie de développement et elle énonce les conditions qui pourraient permettre d'atteindre cet objectif d'ici 2020.

Un tarif carbone solide de 25 $ par tonne de CO2 est la condition sine qua none afin de débloquer les investissements du secteur privé nécessaires au financement de la transition vers une économie à faibles émissions de CO2. Nous sommes toutefois inquiets quant au manque de volonté politique de fixer une tarification du carbone. Nous ne pouvons attendre 2020 pour le savoir car le réchauffement climatique progresse tandis que les négociations au plan international s'éternisent et que l'élan créé dans le secteur privé risque de se dissiper. Il est urgent de commencer dès maintenant à produire des résultats concrets, basés sur des initiatives prometteuses qui méritent d'être révisées à la hausse.

Une de ces initiatives est le programme REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation - réduction des émissions résultant du déboisement et de la dégradation des forêts dans les pays en développement) qui s'efforce de créer une valeur financière pour le carbone emmagasiné dans les forêts tropicales humides. Combattre le déboisement et la dégradation des forêts ne peut attendre 2020. Les ressources mêmes qu'il nous faut protéger auront été largement épuisées d'ici là. Et la protection des forêts tropicales humides, si elle est effectuée correctement, constitue une méthode rentable à la fois pour atténuer les changements climatiques et pour fournir des moyens d'existence durables à des millions de personnes vivant actuellement dans la pauvreté rurale. 

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