Development financing Florian F./Flickr

Un nuevo modelo de financiación del desarrollo

WASHINGTON, DC – Se ha considerado de forma generalizada que el éxito de China con la creación del Banco Asiático de Inversión en Infraestructuras ha sido un fracaso diplomático para los Estados Unidos. Después de intentar convencer a todos los aliados de los EE.UU. para que no se adhirieran al BAII, el gobierno del Presidente Barack Obama vio que Gran Bretaña encabezó a un montón de países europeos occidentales que sí que lo hicieron.

Peor aún: el gobierno de Obama se vio en la situación de intentar bloquear las gestiones de China para crear una entidad financiera regional después de que los propios EE.UU. no pudieran cumplir las promesas de conceder a China y a otras importantes economías en ascenso voz y voto mayores en la gobernación del Fondo Monetario Internacional. Dicho gobierno había presionado a los países europeos para que aceptaran una menor representación en la Junta del FMI y aumentasen la proporción de votos de China de 3,65 por ciento a 6,07 por ciento, pero al final no consiguió el apoyo del Congreso de los EE.UU. para ello. Una vez más, Obama se vio obstaculizado en el extranjero por la parálisis política interna.

Desde una perspectiva geopolítica, la iniciativa del BAII de China ha sido una jugada audaz y lograda en lo que Ely Ratner, investigador superior del Center for a New American Security, califica de “competencia institucional por la gobernación mundial que ya ha comenzado oficialmente”. China controlará la mitad de los votos en el BAII, que contará con una capitalización inicial de 100.000 millones de dólares. A no ser que los vencedores occidentales de la segunda guerra mundial actualicen las normas y las instituciones que sustentaron el orden internacional de la posguerra, se encontrarán en un mundo con múltiples órdenes regionales en competencia e incluso instituciones multilaterales mutuamente rivales.

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