Development financing Florian F./Flickr

Новая модель развития финансов

ВАШИНГТОН – Успех Китая в создании Азиатского Банка Инфраструктурных Инвестиций (АБИИ) стал дипломатическим фиаско для Соединенных Штатов. После того, как администрация президента США Барака Обамы препятствовала всем союзникам США вступать в АБИИ, то ей пришлось наблюдать, как Великобритания ввела в этот самый банк группу стран Западной Европы, а затем Австралию и Южную Корею.

Что еще хуже: администрация Обамы пыталась блокировать китайские усилия по созданию регионального финансового учреждения после того, как сами США не смогли выполнить обещание дать Китаю и другим крупным развивающимся экономикам большее право голоса в управлении Международного Валютного Фонда. Администрация толкала европейские страны занимать меньшее представительство в совете МВФ и увеличить долю голосов Китая с 3,65% до 6,07%, но этой тактике не удалось заручиться поддержкой в Конгрессе США. Обама опять оказался в тупике за рубежом из-за политического паралича у себя дома.

С геополитической точки зрения, инициатива АБИИ – это смелый и успешный гамбит, который Эли Ратнер, старший научный сотрудник Центра новой американской безопасности, описывает как «институциональную конкуренцию за глобальное управление, которая в настоящее время официально началась». Китай будет контролировать половину голосующих акций АБИИ, которые первоначально капитализируются на $100 млрд. Если Западные победители Второй мировой войны не смогут обновить правила и учреждения, которые поддерживали послевоенный международный порядок, они попадут в мир с несколькими конкурирующими региональными властями и даже дуэлями многосторонних учреждений.

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