Development financing Florian F./Flickr

新模式发展金融

华盛顿—中国成功地成立了亚洲基础设施投资银行,这被广泛认为是美国的一次外交惨败。美国总统奥巴马政府试图劝说所有美国盟友不要加入亚投行,但西欧国家在英国的领导下集体倒戈,澳大利亚和韩国随后也加入了亚投行。

更糟糕的是,奥巴马政府发现,由于美国自身无法兑现增加中国和其他主要新兴经济体在国际货币基金组织(IMF)管理事务上的话语权的承诺,现在不得不竭力阻止中国成立一家新的地区金融机构。奥巴马政府提出欧洲国家减少在IMF董事会的代表权,并将中国的投票比例从3.65%增加到6.07%,但这无法赢得美国国会的支持。奥巴马再一次发现,国内政治瘫痪让他在国外举步维艰。

从地缘政治角度看,中国的亚投行计划是一次成功的豪赌,新美国安全中心(Center for a New American Security)高级研究员艾利·拉特纳(Ely Ratner)称之为 “对全球治理的机构竞赛现在正式开始了。”中国将控制亚投行(初始资本10亿美元)一半的投票权。除非西方二战战胜国可以跟新作为战后国际秩序基础的规则和机构,否则它们将进入一个多种地区秩序甚至多个多边机构相互竞争的时代。

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