Innovación en la financiación del desarrollo

ROMA – Hace más de cuatro decenios, los países más ricos del mundo prometieron dedicar al menos el 0,7 por ciento de su PIB a la asistencia oficial para el desarrollo (AOD), pero menos de media docena de países han alcanzado de verdad ese objetivo. En realidad, los desembolsos en AOD no han sido estables ni fiables ni han reflejado las necesidades existentes y, además, persisten las dudas sobre su eficacia.

Después de la Guerra Fría, la AOD disminuyó en gran medida, al bajar hasta el 0,22 del PIB combinado de los países desarrollados en el período 1997-2001, antes de volver a aumentar después de los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001 en los Estados Unidos y de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Financiación para el Desarrollo, celebrada en Monterrey (México), el año siguiente. Después, cuando los gobiernos de los países desarrollados impusieron una austeridad fiscal estricta a raíz de la crisis económica mundial, la AOD volvió a disminuir, hasta el 0,31 por ciento del PIB en el período 2010-2011.

Pero desde la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Financiación para el Desarrollo, celebrada en Monterrey, se han determinado importantes necesidades suplementarias, incluidos planes de asistencia por comercio y la financiación para la mitigación de las consecuencias del cambio climático y la adaptación al respecto y, si bien el Grupo directivo sobre financiación innovadora para el desarrollo, compuesto de 63 gobiernos, además de organizaciones internacionales y grupos de la sociedad civil, ha contribuido a la consecución de importantes avances en el último decenio, la definición de financiación innovadora para el desarrollo sigue siendo controvertida. De hecho, los críticos sostienen que los impuestos internacionales –por ejemplo, los que gravan las emisiones de carbono– que el Grupo directivo ha determinado como posible fuente de financiación violan la soberanía nacional.

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