Innovazione dei finanziamenti allo sviluppo

ROMA – Più di quarant’anni fa, i paesi più ricchi si sono impegnati a dare almeno lo 0,7% del loro PIL all’Assistenza Ufficiale allo Sviluppo (ODA). Tuttavia, meno di dodici paesi sono riusciti a mantenere la promessa. E in effetti, l’erogazione dei fondi per lo sviluppo non è stata per niente costante, affidabile o corrispondente ai bisogni veri e ci sono inoltre seri dubbi sulla loro efficacia.

Gli aiuti ufficiali allo sviluppo sono stati significativamente ridotti dopo la Guerra Fredda fino allo 0,22% del PIL combinato dei paesi avanzati tra il 1997-2001, prima di riprendere a crescere dopo gli attacchi terroristici negli Stati Uniti dell’11 settembre e a seguito della conferenza sul finanziamento allo sviluppo a Monterrey in Messico l’anno successivo. In seguito, con le politiche di austerità fiscale imposte dai governi dei paesi sviluppati a causa della crisi economica globale, l’assistenza ufficiale allo sviluppo è nuovamente diminuita fino a raggiungere lo 0,31% del PIL tra il 20120 ed il 2011.

Ma sin dalla conferenza di Monterrey sarebbe stato necessario individuare nuovi fondi allo sviluppo tra cui progetti di sostegno al commercio e finanziamenti alla mitigazione e all’adattamento del cambiamento climatico. E se da un lato il Leading Group on Innovative Financing for Development, costituito da 63 governi, da organizzazioni internazionali e da gruppi della società civile, ha contribuito ad un progresso significativo nell’ultimo decennio, dall’altro l’individuazione di fondi allo sviluppo innovativi continua ad essere oggetto di discussione. E’ pur vero che i critici sostengono che le tasse internazionali, ad esempio sulle emissioni di carbonio, considerate dal Leading Group come potenziale fonte di finanziamento, infrangono la sovranità nazionale.

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