Inovace ve financování rozvoje

ŘÍM – Před více než čtyřmi desítkami let se nejbohatší země světa zavázaly, že vyčlení nejméně 0,7% svého HDP na oficiální rozvojovou pomoc (ORP). Tento závazek však skutečně plní sotva půltucet států. Platby ORP jsou nestabilní, nespolehlivé, neodrážejí potřeby obdarovaných a přetrvávají pochyby o jejich efektivnosti.

Po skončení studené války se ORP podstatně snížila: v letech 1997-2001 klesla na 0,22% kombinovaného HDP rozvinutých zemí, než opět vzrostla po teroristických útocích na Spojené státy z 11. září 2001 a po Mezinárodní konferenci o financování rozvoje, která se o rok později konala v mexickém Monterrey. Když však vlády rozvinutých zemí zavedly po globální hospodářské krizi přísná fiskální úsporná opatření, začala ORP opět klesat, a to až na 0,31% HDP v letech 2010-2011.

Po konferenci v Monterrey byly ovšem identifikovány významné dodatečné potřeby rozvojového financování, včetně plánů „pomoc za obchod“ a financování zmírnění klimatických změn a adaptace na ně. A ačkoliv Vedoucí skupina pro inovativní financování rozvoje – která zahrnuje 63 vlád, ale i mezinárodních organizací a skupin občanské společnosti – napomohla v posledních deseti letech ke značnému pokroku, sama definice inovativního financování rozvoje zůstává sporná. Kritikové tvrdí, že mezinárodní daně – například daň z uhlíkových emisí –, které „vedoucí skupina“ identifikovala jako potenciální zdroj financování, zasahují do suverenity států.

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